Effect of the Parent-Child Relationship on Development“Adoptive Family Relationships and Healthy Adolescent Development: A Risk and Resilience Analysis.”  Whitten, Kathleen L., and Scott R. Weaver.  Adoption Quarterly 13.3-4 (2010): 209-26.

This study used a risk and resilience perspective and the catch-up model of adoption to study the effect of the parent-child relationship on the resilience of adoptive adolescences.  This study examined 701 adopted adolescents, with a subsample of 288 transracially adopted adolescents.  It focuses on school achievement and behavioral problems to measure the outcome.  The results showed that better parent-child relationship quality was significantly associated with reduced odds of skipping school, being suspended, and reporting substance abuse or police trouble.  It was also associated with better performance in language arts, but not math.  No significant differences were discovered between transracially adopted children and children adopted by families of the same ethnicity.